Support with essential fatty acids EPA + DHA (Omega-3) and Hops       
Supplementation with Melcalin LUPES

Introduction
Inflammation is a defense mechanism of the body aiming the elimination and subsequent repair of the cause of the tissue’s damage; it is a necessary protection mechanism,
however, the persistence of a state of low-grade chronic inflammation is a common feature to a wide range of disorders and chronic diseases.
The low-grade inflammation has different causes including persistent stress, weight gain, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, type of nutrition, loss of circadian rhythms and environmental stress1,2.

An adequate diet, which provides a low glycemic load, controls simple sugars, supplies an adequate amount of fibres and of Omega-3 fatty acids (high titration of acids EPA and DHA), contributes to decrease significantly the inflammatory markers and, consequently, to improve the whole series of chronic inflammatory disorders.

Fish oil is well known for its anti-inflammatory action of EPA + DHA (omega-3), which can be enhanced by combining vegetable products such as hop extract (Humulus lupulus L.; see also Melcalin LUPES). Some components of Hops, in fact, have anti-inflammatory properties which are proven by lower level of C-reactive protein.
Nutrition
Some eating habits, such as consumption of meals high in fat and sugar, contribute to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, while a diet that includes whole grains, fruits, vegetables and fish is associated with lower inflammation levels, also the omega-3 fatty acids as well as vitamins C, E and carotenoids help to reduce the circulating concentrations of inflammatory marker3.
It is calculated that in modern diets over 70% of the energy comes from refined sugar, processed grains and dairy products and there has been an assumption of higher acids omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3, which contributes to the chronic low-grade inflammation, thus promoting the development of many disorders and chronic diseases, including obesity and osteoporosis4.
Studies suggest that healthy dietary models characterized by a glycemic control and a reduction of the introduced fat are associated with a lower concentration of inflammatory markers5.

Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammation 
The Omega-3 fatty acids, come mainly from fatty fish such as mackerel, salmon, tuna and small fish such as herring; this category includes two long chain fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic (EPA C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (DHA C22:5) fatty acid both of which have been shown to have substantial beneficial effects for health.
Researches carried out over the last thirty years have reaffirmed the benefits of a diet rich in fish (omega-3 fatty acids), in fact, the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis and other inflammatory problems as well as of autoimmune diseases, of some types of cancer and are essential for normal growth and development, especially for the brain and the retina.
In order limit the damage caused by chronic inflammation, it is essential to take into account the level of systemic inflammation (see BIA-ACC devices and TomEEx) and adopt strategies through the supplementation of buffer systems (Melcalin BASE) needed to counteract the loss of tampons (bone mineral) typically associated with chronic systemic inflammation.
In order to have a synergistic action to mitigate the inflammatory level, in addition to stimulating the immune-endocrine system, it is necessary to take omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Melcalin LUPES): EPA and DHA are particularly suitable for the suppression of inflammatory processes, mainly due to the inhibition of the proinflammatory eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (omega-6), a decrease of most inflammatory markers (in particular IL-6 and TNF-α) it is in fact demonstrated as a result of  the supplementation of these omega-317.18.

Hop
The Hops (Humulus lupulus) is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family, used in medicine as a sedative, hypnotic and bitter tonic and used as food to produce beer8,9.
Recent studies enhanced the anti-inflammatory properties of hops that are proven with the decrease of the level of C-reactive protein and with the anti-inflammatory properties of some of its components that inhibit the activity cycle-oxygenase-1 and 210,11, also some of the hops flavonoids, in particular the xanthohumol, are able to interact selectively with estrogen receptors and perform an activity similar to estrogens’ activity on bone metabolism (thus reducing demineralization), without producing the side effects of hormonal therapies (multiple publications reported the increased risk of breast and uterine cancer), highlighting  a more protective effect against such problems12,13,14,15.

Conclusion
Diet, nowadays, is usually rich in food containing omega-6 and low in food containg omega-3 (EPA + DHA) as fish, resulting in a dietary imbalance of fatty acids in favor of omega -6 and imbalance of the ratio omega-6 / omega-3 that may predispose to a variety of chronic disorders and diseases of a inflammatory and autoimmune nature.
The correction of this imbalance in the diet can be obtained with fish oil supplementation in capsules (with high titration of EPA + DHA) and with a diet low in omega-6 fat and high in omega-3.
Melcalin LUPES contains fish oil with a high amount of total omega-3 (more than 80% of the product), shown to reduce inflammation (by inhibition of the synthesis of proinflammatory eicosanoids), and hops which increases the anti-inflammatory action of EPA + DHA: its anti-inflammatory properties are found in the lowering of the C-reactive protein level.

Bibliography

  1. Obes Rev. 2011 May;12(5):339-45. Non-nutrient causes of low-grade, systemic inflammation: support for a ‘canary in the mineshaft’ view of obesity in chronic disease.Egger G, Dixon J.
  2. Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct 14; 114(7): 999–1012. Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: current research evidence and its translation.Anne M. Minihane, Sophie Vinoy, Wendy R. Russell, Athanasia Baka, Helen M. Roche, Kieran M. Tuohy, Jessica L. Teeling, Ellen E. Blaak, Michael Fenech, David Vauzour, 1 Harry J. McArdle, Bas H. A. Kremer, Luc Sterkman, Katerina Vafeiadou, Massimo Massi Benedetti, Christine M. Williams, and Philip C. Calder
  3. Br J Nutr. 2011 Dec;106 Suppl 3:S5-78. Dietary factors and low-grade inflammation in relation to overweight and obesity.Calder PC, Ahluwalia N, Brouns F, Buetler T, Clement K, Cunningham K, Esposito K, Jönsson LS, Kolb H, Lansink M, Marcos A, Margioris A, Matusheski N, Nordmann H, O’Brien J, Pugliese G, Rizkalla S, Schalkwijk C, Tuomilehto J, Wärnberg J, Watzl B, Winklhofer-Roob BM.
  4. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2014 Jun;65(2):139-48.Low-grade chronic inflammation perpetuated by modern diet as a promoter of obesity and osteoporosis.Ilich JZ, Kelly OJ, Kim Y, Spicer MT.
  5. Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct 14; 114(7): 999–1012. Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: current research evidence and its translation.Anne M. Minihane, Sophie Vinoy, Wendy R. Russell, Athanasia Baka, Helen M. Roche, Kieran M. Tuohy, Jessica L. Teeling, Ellen E. Blaak, Michael Fenech, David Vauzour, Harry J. McArdle, Bas H. A. Kremer, Luc Sterkman, Katerina Vafeiadou, Massimo Massi Benedetti, Christine M. Williams, and Philip C. Calder
  6. A.P Simopoulos. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy Volume 56, Issue 8, October 2002, Pages 365-379
  7. A.P. Simopoulos. Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy Volume 60, Issue 9, November 2006, Pages 502-507
  8. P. Zanoli , , M. Zavatti, M. Rivasi, F. Brusiani, G. Losi, G. Puia, R. Avallone, M. Baraldi. Evidence that the -acids fraction of hops reduces central GABAergic neurotransmission. Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 109, Issue 1, 3 January 2007, Pages 87-92
  9. L. Delmulle, A. Bellahcène, W. Dhooge, F. Comhaire, F. Roelens, K. Huvaere, A. Heyerick, V. Castronovob, D. De Keukeleirea, Anti-proliferative properties of prenylated flavonoids from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) in human prostate cancer cell lines. Phytomedicine Volume 13, Issues 9-10, 24 November 2006, Pages 732-734
  10. Veera R Konda, Anuradha Desai, Gary Darland, Jeffrey S Bland and Matthew L Tripp. Rho iso-alpha acids from hops inhibit the GSK-3/NF-B pathway and reduce inflammatory markers associated with bone and cartilage degradation. Journal of Inflammation 2009, 6:26
  11. Gerhauser C, Alt A, Heiss E, Gamal-Eldeen A, Klimo K, Knauft J, Neumann I, Scherf HR, Frank N, Bartsch H, Becker H. Cancer chemopreventive activity of Xanthohumol, a natural product derived from hop. Mol Cancer Ther. 2002 Sep;1(11):959-69.
  12. Taylor, Francis. Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine.Flaxseed. 2007
  13. Heyerick A, Vervarcke S, Depypere H, Bracke M, De Keukeleire D. A first prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the use of a standardized hop extract to alleviate menopausal discomforts. Maturitas. 2006 May 20;54(2):164-75.
  14. Overk CR, Yao P, Chadwick LR, Nikolic D, Sun Y, Cuendet MA, Deng Y, Hedayat AS, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. Comparison of the in vitro estrogenic activities of compounds from hops (Humulus lupulus) and red clover (Trifolium pratense). J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6246-53.
  15. Zanoli P, Zavatti M, Rivasi M, Brusiani F, Losi G, Puia G, Avallone R, Baraldi M. Evidence that the beta-acids fraction of hops reduces central GABAergic neurotransmission. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 3;109(1):87-92. Epub 2006 Jul 11.
  16. Dianne H. Volker. Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Mediterranean Diet, Probiotics, Vitamin D, and Exercise in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. 2007
  17. Mori TA, Beilin LJ, Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammation, Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004 Nov;6(6):461-7;
  18. Nutr Rev. 2010 May;68(5):280-9. Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Wall R, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C.
  19. Calder PC, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease, Ann Nutr Metab.1997;41(4):203-34;