Winter dehydration, electrolyte loss and lowering of immune defences
Supplementation with Melcalin VITA

 
Introduction

Dehydration is a serious risk for health and it is essential to remember that this is not a problem related solely to hot weather, but rather, can also occur very often with the cold.

To avoid this phenomenon, the obvious solution is to drink enough, however, during winter, cold temperatures may also reduce the feeling of thirst, we don’t feel the loss of fluids due to thermoregulation from cold and to sweat and, therefore, we do not think that dehydration may occur. Any person can become dehydrated, although children, people with chronic diseases and the elderly are the most at risk; the symptoms of mild dehydration include: drowsiness, fatigue, dry skin, headache, constipation and dizziness while the symptoms of severe dehydration include: extreme thirst, irritability, confusion, dizziness and hallucinations.

The adoption of simple measures like keeping on hand a bottle of water and consume regularly fruit and vegetables, are useful choices not only to increase the total quantity of medicines given but also to introduce key vitamins and minerals to support the immune system, especially in the winter time when we are also more keen to catching colds and flu5.

Melcalin VITA is a multivitamin and multimineral supplement that contributes to an adequate fluid and electrolyte balance, thanks to the minerals contained such as magnesium and potassium as well as iron, zinc, copper and selenium which support the protective activity of immune cells along with vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid.

Hydro-saline balance
Water is the main constituent of our body (represents about 50-60% of body weight in an adult) (TBW-body hydration)1 and plays crucial actions: it allows the transport of nutrients across cell membranes, regulates the temperature, represents the means by which many biochemical reactions occur, it is also of fundamental importance for the cardiovascular function (regulates blood pressure) (ECW-extracellular water)1 and digestion.

The fluid and electrolyte balance changes constantly because we lose water  through breathing, perspiration and urine  and we introduce it through liquids and foods (TBW – Turnover)1. When water loss is not compensated by an adequate intake of fluids we incur dehydration and our organism suffer consequences2,3. Dehydration can occur at any time of the year; it is therefore important to maintain proper hydration and proper electrolyte balance, this can be done with a supplementation of magnesium and potassium, indicated to maintain an adequate  hydrosaline balance (TBK – total potassium, ECK – extracellular potassium, TBMG – total magnesium, K / Mg – potassium magnesium ratio, TBNA – total sodium)1,4,10 and potassium and sodium bicarbonate, used to maintain the extracellular acid-base balance.

Immune system
An adequate intake of micronutrients is necessary for the immune system to work efficiently: the shortage of micronutrients leads to dysregulation of the immune response making the body more susceptible to infection and, in turn, infections  aggravate micronutrient deficiencies through various mechanisms including the increase of the elimination of nutrients and the alteration of the metabolic pathways that allow their use. It should be added that an insufficient intake of micronutrients occur in people with eating disorders, in smokers (active and passive), in subjects with alcohol dependence, in some diseases, during pregnancy and lactation and in the elderly.

Micronutrients contribute to the body defences in three ways: supporting the physical barriers (skin / mucous), cellular immunity and production of antibodies. In particular, vitamins A, C, E and zinc help to improve the skin’s barrier function while vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid, in combination with trace elements such as iron, zinc, copper and selenium, work synergistically to support the protective activity of immune cells and the production of antibodies6.

There is extensive literature on the relationship between shortages of certain minerals and activity of the immune system: a copper deficiency causes increased susceptibility to infection, demonstrated by antibody response depression7; similarly, a selenium deficiency causes a slowdown in the immune system which causes a response deficit to the pathogen8; Other studies concern the benefits of supplementation on the activity of the immune system, for example, zinc integration, within infectious diseases, reduces the incidence of both acute and chronic infections on both infants, children and elderly subjects9,11.

Vitamins also are also important in the activity of the immune system: Vitamin C improves the function of the immune system and reduces the duration of symptoms of cold12, B12 and B6 vitamins as well as vitamin D play an important role in cellular immunity13,14 and their shortage negatively influences the status of immune system15, while a deficiency of vitamin A causes an alteration in the physiological regeneration of mucosal barriers damaged by infection or a decrease in immune  response16.

Conclusioni
For a correct functioning of the organism, a good state of hydration is essential, therefore, in winter as well as in summer, it is important to hydrate in an appropriate manner in order to avoid dehydration and all its consequences; keeping with you a bottle of water and eating fruits and vegetables regularly are simple steps to take on more liquid and to introduce key vitamins and minerals to support the immune system. Melcalin VITA with his right amount of minerals such as potassium and magnesium is a useful supplement for a proper electrolyte balance, thanks to the content in minerals such as magnesium and potassium as well as iron, zinc, copper and selenium which help to support the activities of protection of immune cells along with vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid.

Melcalin VITA  can also contributes:

  • supporting and maintaining good physical and sports performance;
  • physical recovery after exercise;
  • supporting a good mental performance;
  • maintaining the appearance of the osseous system, the cartilage tissue and skin thanks to vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and manganese;
  • as a adjunct in the maintenance of optimal pressure levels.

Bibliography:

  1. Diagnostica differenziale con bioimpedenza- Medical Device BIA-ACC Biotekna. TBW= Total Body Water: indica la quantità d’acquacorporea totale, TBK= Total Body Kalium: Potassio totale, ECK= Extra Cellular Kalium: Potassio extracellulare, TBMg= Total Body Magnesium: Magnesio Totale, Ratio K/Mg: Rapporto Potassio/Magnesio, Tbprotein= Total Body protein: proteine totali, Le=essential Lipids: lipidi essenziali, FM=Fatt Mass: massa grassa, Gly=Glycogen: glicogeno, ECW=extracellular water: acqua extracellulare, Turnover TBW= turnover acqua totale.
  2. J Am Coll Nutr October 2007. Assessing Hydration Status: The Elusive Gold Standard. Lawrence E.
  3. Physiol Behav. 2010 Apr 26;100(1):15-21. Epub 2010 Mar 6. Thirst and hydration: physiology and consequences of dysfunction.Thornton SN.
  4. The European Nutrition for Health Alliance. www.europeanhydrationinstitute.org
  5. The ithaca journal.Dehydration is a risk even during the winter
  6. Br J Nutr. 2007 Oct;98 Suppl 1:S29-35.Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses.Maggini S, Wintergerst ES, Beveridge S, Hornig DH.
  7. J Natl Med Assoc. 1992 Aug; 84(8): 697–706. Interaction of nutrition and infection: effect of copper deficiency on resistance to Trypanosoma lewisi.A. Crocker, C. Lee, G. Aboko-Cole, and C. Durham
  8. 2004 American Society for Clinical Nutrition.An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status.Caroline S Broome, Francis McArdle, Janet AM Kyle, Francis Andrews, Nicola M Lowe, C Anthony Hart, John R Arthur, and Malcolm J Jackson
  9. Mol Med. 2008 May-Jun; 14(5-6): 353–357. Zinc in Human Health: Effect of Zinc on Immune Cells.Ananda S Prasad
  10. EFSA. Council of the european union. 27 Jannuary 2012.
  11. Proc Nutr Soc. 2000 Nov;59(4):541-52.Zinc and the immune system.Rink L, Gabriel P.
  12. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2013 Apr-Jun;27(2):291-5.Role of vitamins D, E and C in immunity and inflammation.Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb YB, Varvara G, Murmura G, Saggini A, Caraffa A, Antinolfi P, Tete’ S, Tripodi D, Conti F, Cianchetti E, Toniato E, Rosati M, Speranza L, Pantalone A, Saggini R, Tei M, Speziali A, Conti P, Theoharides TC, Pandolfi F.
  13. Clin Exp Immunol. 1999 Apr;116(1):28-32.Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment.Tamura J, Kubota K, Murakami H, Sawamura M, Matsushima T, Tamura T, Saitoh T, Kurabayshi H, Naruse T.
  14. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;60(10):1207-13. Epub 2006 May 3.Vitamin B6 supplementation increases immune responses in critically ill patients.Cheng CH, Chang SJ, Lee BJ, Lin KL, Huang YC.
  15. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 Jun 1.Vitamin D and the immune system: new perspectives on an old theme.Martin Hewison.
  16. Annu Rev Nutr. 2001;21:167-92.Vitamin A, infection, and immune function.Stephensen CB.