Cold, dehydration and the immune system

In winter we struggle to drink, because we rarely feel thirst. We know that our body water is still expelled through breathing, sweating and urine: but precisely because the perception of thirst is lowered, the risk of dehydration may increase. Symptoms of mild dehydration are very common: drowsiness, fatigue, dry skin, headache, constipation and dizziness. To maintain optimal hydration, we should drink water every day corresponding to a minimum of 3% of our body weight, in addition to the intake of fruits and vegetables for the introduction of vitamins and minerals. These substances, called micronutrients, must be balanced with the amount of water present in our body and maintain the so-called fluid/electrolyte balance. If this balance is missing due to a lack of water or micronutrients, the first to suffer is the immune system and, by the way, exactly during the season in which it should give its best.

For further information:

Dietary supplementation with vitamins and minerals is recommended in order to ensure a perfect fluid/electrolyte balance and an excellent protection of the immune cells thanks to the effects of magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and selenium together with vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid. These components also help the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and iron as well as maintaining the acid-base (unbalanced positive PRAL diet) and hydro-saline balance of the body: see for example supplementation with Melcalin Vita.

Author: Dario Boschiero - Data: 27/01/2021

Attention: these contents can be freely used for personal learning purposes only. The use is regulated by Law No. 633/1941 and subsequent amendments, as well as by the copyright and patent legislation in force. Any use for commercial and profit-making purposes is forbidden.


  1. EFSA. Council of the european union. 27 Jannuary 2012.
  2. Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1983 Sep;8(3):140-2. Dietary supplementation with vitamin C delays the onset of fatigue in isolated striated muscle of rats. Richardson JH, Allen RB.
  3. J R Soc Med. 1999 Apr;92(4):183-5.Vitamin B status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Heap LC, Peters TJ, Wessely S.
  4. PloS One. 2012;7(1):e30519. Epub 2012 Jan 20.Association of vitamin B12 deficiency with fatigue and depression after lacunar stroke. Huijts M, Duits A, Staals J, van Oostenbugge RJ.
  5. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Aug;20(4):337-42. Dietary and supplement treatment of iron deficiency results in improvements in general health and fatigue in Australian women of childbearing age. Patterson AJ, Brown WJ, Roberts DC. Ironing out fatigue. Annette von Drygalski and John W. Adamson.
  6. O.Wenker: Vitamin Deficiencies: An Overview. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2005 Vol 1 Number 1
  7. The influence of vitamin B12 on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chiunt T, Lingt and Bacon F. Chow.
  8. The B vitamin and fat metabolism. E.W.McHenry and Gertrude Gavin.
  9. 1995 Aug;98(2):185-9,192-3.Niacin for lipid disorders.Indications, effectiveness, and safety. Brown WV.
  10. 2010 Jan;1800(1):6-15. Epub 2009 Oct 28.Niacin improves renal lipid metabolism and slows progression in chronic kidney disease. Cho KH, Kim HJ, Kamanna VS.
  11. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1982;4(1-2):105-14. Vitamins and lipid metabolism. Fidanza A, Audisio M.
  12. S Afr Med J. 1975 Sep 20;49(40):1651-4. The effects of vitamine C on lipid metabolism.Kotzé JP.
  13. West J Med. 1990 January; 152(1): 41–45. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects. R. I. Press, J. Geller, and G. W. Evans
  14. Turk J Med Sci 2006 The effect of zinc Deficiency on zinc status, carbohydrate metabolism and progesterone level in pregnant rats.
  15. Nutr Biochem nov 2003, 14 (11) :648-55. Carbohydrate metabolism in erythrocytes of copper deficient rats. Metabolismo dei carboidrati in eritrociti di ratti carenti di rame. Brooks SP, Cockell KA, Dawson BA.
  16. Isr J Med Sci. 1982 Aug;18(8):840-4.Effect of copper on carbohydrate metabolism in rats.Cohen AM; Teitelbaum A, Miller E.
  17. Metabolism. 2007 Sep;56(9):1233-40. Effect of chromium on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the fatfed, streptozotocin-treated rat. Sahir K, Onderci M, Tuzcu M.
  18. Diabetes.1997 Nov;46(11):1786-91. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA.